Students of Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia and members of IAAS Indonesia, LC Brawijaya – Rois, Ardissa, Hilya and Dianita came up with an idea to face “Thought for Food Challenge” by answering to the question “How to feed 9+billions people in 2050?”. The proposed solution is ‘’GREAT FOR (Groundnut Meal Tempeh Flour): Transform big potential groundnut meal by-product into high protein tempeh flour. It aims to acquire ‘’Zero Hunger’’ and combat ‘‘Protein Energy Malnutrition’’ by transforming potential groundnut meal into high protein, safe (gluten free), and affordable flour.
The idea starts from a major Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) problem in Indonesia and other developing/underdeveloped countries. Global annual mortality rate is 7.1 per 100,000 people shows the highest mortality rate globally from all nutritional deficiencies (Global Health Data Exchange, 2016; The World Bank, 2016).
As the raw material, groundnut meal is the by-product obtained after the extraction of oil from groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) (Feedipedia, 2016). The process of making groundnut oil from 100% of raw material produce 37.5% groundnut oil and 61.5% groundnut meal as by-product (Anand, 2009). Based on FAOSFAT (2014) no less than 46,931 tonnes of groundnut meal are produced. This is a huge number to discard. Meanwhile, the groundnut meal contains protein (45-60%), carbohydrate (20-30%), mineral (4-6%) (Devi et. al., 2013), ash (4.5%), calcium (0.11%) phosphor (0.74%), 11 amino acids, MUFA, PUFA, potassium, magnesium, copper, niacin, alpha-tokoferol, folates, phytosterols and flavonoids (Spadaro, 1979).
Unfortunately, the groundnut meal still considered only as the animal feed because its susceptible to aflatoxin. FDA (2016) enforces a ruling that 20 parts per billion is the maximum of aflatoxin permitted. Moreover, the physical and organoleptic characteristic in groundnut meal is not so good.
Fermentation is the best way to solve those problems. Is improves protein digestibility, organoleptic characteristics elevate nutritional value of food material (Marshall & Mejia, 2011) and reduces the aflatoxin up to 88,95 % (Rubak, 2012). The process uses Rhizopus sp to synthesis enzymes which hydrolyze groundnut meal constituents and contribute to the development of a desirable texture, flavor, and aroma of the product. Enzymatic hydrolysis also eliminate anti nutritional constituents.Tempeh contains B12 vitamin which produced by a bacteria. If you replace meat protein with vegetable protein, such as tempeh, you need about 5 to 10 times less land to produce it. Greenhouse gas emissions for animal-based foods is 250 times than of legumes. So consuming tempeh is good for our planet. (www.tempeh.info, 2016)
In process of making flour, groundnut meal tempeh is dried and milled. This flour is gluten free which applicable for high protein product or for substitution non-gluten allergen flour. GREAT FOR can be used as the raw material to unlimited food such as: porridge, noodle, pizza/pie dough, noodle, pastry and other bakery products. ‘‘GREAT FOR: Groundnut Meal Tempeh Flour’’ is the best choice to be used, stored, and distributed into daily needs now and in the future for nourishing people all over the world. For further information please visit: https://www.facebook.com/Great-For-599774143554801/
Think globally! Act locally!